Laravel 8 Sanctum API Authentication Tutorial


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Published By: Admin, Published On: Apr 22, 2021, Category: Laravel 8 Laravel

Hi Guys,

Today,I will learn you how to use sanctum api authenticationin laravel 8. We will Show example of sanctum api authentication in laravel 8. it's simple example of laravel 8 sanctum example. you'll learn laravel 8 sanctum rest api example. So, let's follow few step to create example of laravel 8 sanctum api token tutorial.

Laravel 8 Sanctum provides a simple authentication system for SPAs (single page applications), mobile applications, and simple, token based APIs. Sanctum also allows each user of your application to generate multiple API tokens for their account.

You also want to create api for your mobile application than you can follow this tutorial for how to create rest api step by step with laravel 8 and sanctum. If you are new than don't worry about that i written tutorial step by step.

Step 1 : Install Laravel 8

In the first step, we need to get fresh laravel 8 version application So let's open terminal and run bellow command to install fresh laravel project.

composer create-project --prefer-dist laravel/laravel blog
Step 2 : Database Configuration

In second step, we will make database Configuration for example database name, username, password etc. So lets open .env file and fill all deatils like as bellow:

.env
DB_CONNECTION=mysql
DB_HOST=127.0.0.1
DB_PORT=3306
DB_DATABASE=here your database name(blog)
DB_USERNAME=here database username(root)
DB_PASSWORD=here database password(root)
Step 1: Install Laravel 8

In this step we need to install sanctum via the Composer package manager, so one your terminal and fire bellow command.

composer require laravel/sanctum

After successfully install package, we need to publish configuration file with following command:

php artisan vendor:publish --provider="Laravel\Sanctum\SanctumServiceProvider"

we require to get default migration for create new sanctum tables in our database. so let's run bellow command.

php artisan migrate

Next, we need to add middleware for sanctum api, so let's add as like bellow:

app/Http/Kernel.php
....
'api' => [
    \Laravel\Sanctum\Http\Middleware\EnsureFrontendRequestsAreStateful::class,
    'throttle:api',
    \Illuminate\Routing\Middleware\SubstituteBindings::class,
],
....
Step 3: Sanctum Configuration

In this step, we have to configuration on three place model, service provider and auth config file. So you have to just following change on that file.

In model we added HasApiTokens class of Sanctum,

In auth.php, we added api auth configuration.

app/Models/User.php
<?php
  
namespace App\Models;
  
use Illuminate\Contracts\Auth\MustVerifyEmail;
use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Factories\HasFactory;
use Illuminate\Foundation\Auth\User as Authenticatable;
use Illuminate\Notifications\Notifiable;
use Laravel\Sanctum\HasApiTokens;
  
class User extends Authenticatable
{
    use HasFactory, Notifiable, HasApiTokens;
  
    /**
     * The attributes that are mass assignable.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $fillable = [
        'name',
        'email',
        'password',
    ];
  
    /**
     * The attributes that should be hidden for arrays.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $hidden = [
        'password',
        'remember_token',
    ];
  
    /**
     * The attributes that should be cast to native types.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $casts = [
        'email_verified_at' => 'datetime',
    ];
}
Step 4: Add Food Table and Model

In this step, We require to create migration for posts table using Laravel 8 php artisan command, so first fire bellow command.

php artisan make:migration create_foods_table

After this command you will find one file in following path database/migrations and you have to put bellow code in your migration file for create Foods table.

<?php

use Illuminate\Database\Migrations\Migration;
use Illuminate\Database\Schema\Blueprint;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Schema;

class CreateFoodsTable extends Migration
{
    /**
     * Run the migrations.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function up()
    {
        Schema::create('foods', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table->id();
            $table->string('name');
            $table->text('detail');
            $table->timestamps();
        });
    }

    /**
     * Reverse the migrations.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function down()
    {
        Schema::dropIfExists('foods');
    }
}

After create migration we need to run above migration by following command:

php artisan migrate

After create "foods" table you should create Food model for foods, so first create file in this path app/Models/Food.php and put bellow content in item.php file.

app/Models/Food.php
<?php

namespace App\Models;

use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Factories\HasFactory;
use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model;

class Food extends Model
{
    use HasFactory;

    /**
     * The attributes that are mass assignable.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $fillable = [
        'name', 'detail'
    ];
}
Step 5: Create API Routes
group( function () {
    Route::resource('foods', FoodController::class);
});
Step 6: Create Controller Files

In this step, we have create new controller as BaseController, FoodController and RegisterController, i created new folder "API" in Controllers folder because we will make alone APIs controller, So let's create both controller.

app/Http/Controllers/API/BaseController.php
<?php

namespace App\Http\Controllers\API;

use App\Http\Controllers\Controller;
use Illuminate\Http\Request;

class BaseController extends Controller
{
    /**
    * success response method.
    *
    * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
    */
    public function sendResponse($result, $message)
    {
    	$response = [
            'success' => true,
            'data'    => $result,
            'message' => $message,
        ];


        return response()->json($response, 200);
    }


    /**
     * return error response.
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function sendError($error, $errorMessages = [], $code = 404)
    {
    	$response = [
            'success' => false,
            'message' => $error,
        ];


        if(!empty($errorMessages)){
            $response['data'] = $errorMessages;
        }


        return response()->json($response, $code);
    }
}
app/Http/Controllers/API/RegisterController.php
<?php

namespace App\Http\Controllers\API;
use App\Http\Controllers\API\BaseController as BaseController;
use Illuminate\Http\Request;
use App\Models\User;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Auth;
use Validator;

class RegisterController extends BaseController
{
     /**
     * Register api
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function register(Request $request)
    {
        $validator = Validator::make($request->all(), [
            'name' => 'required',
            'email' => 'required|email',
            'password' => 'required',
            'c_password' => 'required|same:password',
        ]);
   
        if($validator->fails()){
            return $this->sendError('Validation Error.', $validator->errors());       
        }
   
        $input = $request->all();
        $input['password'] = bcrypt($input['password']);
        $user = User::create($input);
        $success['token'] =  $user->createToken('MyApp')->plainTextToken;
        $success['name'] =  $user->name;
   
        return $this->sendResponse($success, 'User register successfully.');
    }
   
    /**
     * Login api
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function login(Request $request)
    {
        if(Auth::attempt(['email' => $request->email, 'password' => $request->password])){ 
            $user = Auth::user(); 
            $success['token'] =  $user->createToken('MyApp')->plainTextToken; 
            $success['name'] =  $user->name;
   
            return $this->sendResponse($success, 'User login successfully.');
        } 
        else{ 
            return $this->sendError('Unauthorised.', ['error'=>'Unauthorised']);
        } 
    }
}
app/Http/Controllers/API/FoodController.php
sendResponse(FoodResource::collection($foods), 'Foods retrieved successfully.');
    }
    /**
     * Store a newly created resource in storage.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function store(Request $request)
    {
        $input = $request->all();
   
        $validator = Validator::make($input, [
            'name' => 'required',
            'detail' => 'required'
        ]);
   
        if($validator->fails()){
            return $this->sendError('Validation Error.', $validator->errors());       
        }
   
        $food = Food::create($input);
   
        return $this->sendResponse(new FoodResource($food), 'Food created successfully.');
    } 
   
    /**
     * Display the specified resource.
     *
     * @param  int  $id
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function show($id)
    {
        $food = Food::find($id);
  
        if (is_null($food)) {
            return $this->sendError('Food not found.');
        }
   
        return $this->sendResponse(new FoodResource($food), 'Food retrieved successfully.');
    }
    
    /**
     * Update the specified resource in storage.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @param  int  $id
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function update(Request $request, Food $food)
    {
        $input = $request->all();
   
        $validator = Validator::make($input, [
            'name' => 'required',
            'detail' => 'required'
        ]);
   
        if($validator->fails()){
            return $this->sendError('Validation Error.', $validator->errors());       
        }
   
        $food->name = $input['name'];
        $food->detail = $input['detail'];
        $food->save();
   
        return $this->sendResponse(new FoodResource($food), 'Food updated successfully.');
    }
   
    /**
     * Remove the specified resource from storage.
     *
     * @param  int  $id
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function destroy(Food $food)
    {
        $food->delete();
   
        return $this->sendResponse([], 'Food deleted successfully.');
    }
}
Step 7: Create Eloquent API Resources

Now In this step,This is a very important step of creating rest api in laravel 8. you can use eloquent api resources with api. it will helps you to make same response layout of your model object. we used in FoodController file. now we have to create it using following command.

php artisan make:resource Food

Now there created new file with new folder on following path:

app/Http/Resources/Food.php
<?php

namespace App\Http\Resources;

use Illuminate\Http\Resources\Json\JsonResource;

class Food extends JsonResource
{
     /**
     * Transform the resource into an array.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @return array
     */
    public function toArray($request)
    {
        return [
            'id' => $this->id,
            'name' => $this->name,
            'detail' => $this->detail,
            'created_at' => $this->created_at->format('d/m/Y'),
            'updated_at' => $this->updated_at->format('d/m/Y'),
        ];
    }
}

Now we are ready to to run full restful api and also passport api in laravel. so let's run our example so run bellow command for quick run:

php artisan serve

make sure in details api we will use following headers as listed bellow:

'headers' => [

    'Accept' => 'application/json',

    'Authorization' => 'Bearer '.$accessToken,
]

Now simply you can run above listed url like as bellow screen shot:

1) Register API: Verb:GET, URL:http://localhost:8000/api/register 2) Login API: Verb:GET, URL:http://localhost:8000/api/login 3) Food List API: Verb:GET, URL:http://localhost:8000/api/foods 4) Food Create API: Verb:POST, URL:http://localhost:8000/api/foods 5) Food Show API: Verb:GET, URL:http://localhost:8000/api/foods/{id} 6) Food Update API: Verb:PUT, URL:http://localhost:8000/api/foods/{id} 7) Food Delete API: Verb:DELETE, URL:http://localhost:8000/api/food/{id}

It wiil help you....

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